Trends of common birds in Europe, 2016 update

This report presents an updated population trends and indices of 169 common European bird species for the time period 1980-2014 that have been produced by the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS) in 2016. The species trends presented are for long time period (from 1980 onwards until 2014) and for last ten years (2005-2014).
Updated common bird indicators for Europe, EU and their regions for the same time period can be found in a special report.

Acknowledgements

Above all, we thank many skilled volunteer counters who have been collecting species count data year by year in the field.

Special thanks go to the data providers & organisations that are responsible for national data collection and analysis, and provide us with valuable advises and various support (listed alphabetically by countries and surnames):
Johannes Hohenegger, Benjamin Seaman, Norbert Teufelbauer (Austria), Antoine Derouaux, Dido Gosse, Jean-Yves Paquet, Anne Weiserbs (Belgium), Iordan Hristov, Georgi Popgeorgiev (Bulgaria), Martin Hellicar, Derek Pomeroy (Cyprus), Zdeněk Vermouzek (Czech Republic), Nathia Brandtberg, Michael Fink Jørgensen, Jørn Dyhrberg Larsen, Timme Nyegaard (Denmark), Jaanus Elts, Andres Kuresoo, Renno Nellis, Hannes Pehlak (Estonia), Juha Honkala, Päivi Sirkiä, Risto A. Väisänen (Finland), Diane Gonzalez, Frédéric Jiguet (France), Martin Flade, Christoph Grüneberg, Johannes Schwarz, Sven Trautmann (Germany), Theodoros Kominos, Aris Manolopoulos, Danae Portolou (Greece), Zoltán Görögh, Károly Nagy, Zsolt Nagy, Tibor Szép (Hungary), Gianpiero Calvi, Tommaso Campedelli, Lorenzo Fornasari, Patrizia Rossi (Italy), Ainārs Auniņš, Oskars Keišs, Ieva Mārdega (Latvia), Petras Kurlavičius, Renata Mackevičienė (Lithuania), Gilles Biver (Luxembourg), Arjan Boele, Joost van Bruggen, Kees Koffijberg, Tom van der Meij, Wolf Teunissen, Chris van Turnhout, Jan-Willem Vergeer (Netherlands), Magne Husby, John Atle Kålås, Roald Vang (Norway), Tomasz Chodkiewicz, Przemysław Chylarecki, Grzegorz Neubauer (Poland), Julieta Costa, Isabel Fagundes, Ana Leal, Domingos Leitão, Ricardo Martins, Ana Teresa Marques, Ana Meirinho, António Rosa, Hugo Sampaio (Portugal), Dick Coombes, Olivia Crowe (Republic of Ireland), Cristian Domşa, Ede Gábos, Zoltán D. Szabó (Romania), Jozef Ridzoň, Katarína Slabeyová, Ján Topercer (Slovakia), Jernej Figelj, Primož Kmecl (Slovenia), Marc Anton, Virginia Escandell, Emilio Escudero, Sergi Herrando, Juan Carlos del Moral (Spain), Martin Green, Åke Lindström (Sweden), Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid, Martin Spiess (Switzerland), Sarah Harris, Dario Massimino, David G. Noble (United Kingdom).

We are very grateful to Arco van Strien, Adriaan Gmelig Meyling and Thomas van der Meij (all from Statistics Netherlands) who developed a tool for calculation of indices and trends and provided an assistance with a computation procedure, and to Tomáš Telenský who helped very much with this web presentation.

We thank members of the PECBMS Steering and Technical Group – Richard D. Gregory (RSPB), Ruud P. B. Foppen (SOVON), David G. Noble (BTO), Iván Ramírez (Birdlife International), and Zdeněk Vermouzek (CSO) – for valuable comments and help with data collation and analysis.

Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme is a joint initiative of the European Bird Census Council (EBCC) and BirdLife International. Since its beginning in 2002, the PECBMS project has been supported by the the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, the BirdLife International Partner in the UK). Since January 2006 the project has been funded by the European Commission as well.

Other important partners of the project are: Statistics Netherlands, Czech Society for Ornithology (CSO, BirdLife Partner in the Czech Republic), British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Dutch Organisation for Field Ornithology (SOVON), and others.

Data

In 2016, reliable European index was produced on 169 species. Altogether 28 countries provided their data for this update.
The complete list of countries contributing to the PECBMS in 2016: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Ireland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

The countries provided the data for different time periods, see Methods, chapter 2. Supranational species indices and trends or check the ´List of countries´ at the individual species graphs.

New development and improvement in computation techniques allowed us to use data from multiple schemes within one country which is the case for data from Belgium, Cyprus, France, Germany, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden. In addition, data from several special monitoring schemes are included as well: Wetland Species Monitoring in Poland (covers period 2007-2014), Rare Breeding Bird Survey in Germany (covers various periods from 1980), or Waterways Bird Survey (1974-2007) and Waterways Breeding Bird Survey (1998-2014) in United Kingdom.

Methods

Detailed description of computation steps and methods is available in special section Methods, in chapter 1. National species indices and trends and chapter 2. Supranational species indices and trends.

Species habitat classification for main habitat types (farmland, forest and other) is described in Methods, chapter 3, Box Species selection and classification.

Results

The same as last year, we present long-term and ten-year trends and slopes. The Long-term Slope is calculated over the period 1980-2014 but starting years of this long time period vary from 1980 to 1998 (as specified in the Species notes below the table of trends). In parallel, the Long-term Trend represents a change (in %) in an index value between the first and the last year of this long time period. The Ten-year Slope is calculated over the period of last ten years, i.e. 2005-2014. Similarly, Ten-year Trend represents a change (in %) in an index value between the first and the last year of the period of last ten years.

Updated European species indices, long-term and ten-year trends and slopes, and species habitat classification are summarized in the table below. For explanations to the table see also the Explanations below the table.

To generate the graph of a species index, click the species name in the table. To generate graphs for several species at once, tick the check boxes at left side of species names and press ENTER or click Show graphs for selected species button below the table to confirm and proceed your selection. You can also draw graphs for all species at once (Select all) or quickly deselect your choice (Reset). The list of countries and time periods for which the countreis provided the data can be found at individual species graphs (List of countries). You can choose to order species trends by alphabet or by taxonomic classification, see by alphabet | by taxonomy buttons in the head of the table.

For comparison, check the previous version of species trends produced for the time period 1980-2013.

Indices and trends for 169 European bird species are now freely available for download in Excel sheets (Data Provision and Co-Authorship Policies applies).

We appreciate you help us to keep evidence of usage of our results. For this purpose, please fill in the simple registration form after you download the data files.

Download European species indices and trends till 2014

Please, note that the data is licensed under a Creative Commons license CC BY-NC 4.0 and is governed by applicable copyright law (Creative Commons Legal Code). Creative Commons. January 9, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2010.

Note: We recommend cautious interpretation of year by year changes in the index values and readers should also pay attention to species legend. For any use of the results presented in this report, we strongly recommend to consult PECBMS coordination unit (EuroMonitoring@birdlife.cz).

Species
( by alphabet | by taxonomy )
Long-
term Trend (%)a)
Long-term Slope (SE)b) Ten-
year Trend (%)a)
Ten-year Slope (SE)b) Habitat
c)
Accipiter nisus -3 0.9956 (0.0073) -20 0.9707 (0.0055) for
Acrocephalus arundinaceus3) 12 1.0093 (0.0099) -19 0.9691 (0.0102) oth
Acrocephalus palustris 11 0.9977 (0.0017) 10 1.0018 (0.0044) oth
Acrocephalus schoenobaenus -17 1.0039 (0.005) -2 0.9998 (0.0234) oth
Acrocephalus scirpaceus -10 0.9979 (0.0013) -4 0.9919 (0.0041) oth
Actitis hypoleucos -32 0.9833 (0.003) -19 0.9924 (0.0094) oth
Aegithalos caudatus 60 1.0056 (0.0053) 15 1.011 (0.0057) oth
Alauda arvensis -55 0.9816 (0.0009) -13 0.983 (0.0015) farm
Alcedo atthis8) 92 0.9962 (0.0057) 10 0.9783 (0.0111) oth
Alectoris rufa10) -37 0.9802 (0.0024) -41 0.9476 (0.0036) farm
Anas platyrhynchos 51 1.0097 (0.0019) 4 1.0069 (0.0029) oth
Anthus campestris8) -67 0.981 (0.1495) -8 0.9935 (0.0122) farm
Anthus pratensis -63 0.9725 (0.0033) -14 0.9886 (0.0037) farm
Anthus trivialis -54 0.9763 (0.0009) -6 0.9912 (0.002) for
Apus apus -18 0.9974 (0.0039) -23 0.9786 (0.0037) oth
Ardea cinerea 139 1.0202 (0.0021) -6 0.9726 (0.0038) oth
Bombycilla garrulus5) 312 1.0855 (0.0144) -19 0.9813 (0.0195) for
Bonasa bonasia -17 0.9941 (0.005) 19 1.0071 (0.0121) for
Bubulcus ibis10) 6 1.0056 (0.0081) 47 1.0603 (0.0117) farm
Burhinus oedicnemus10) -26 0.9922 (0.0044) -4 0.9776 (0.0074) farm
Buteo buteo 118 1.0251 (0.003) -4 0.9966 (0.0021) oth
Calandrella brachydactyla10) 17 1.003 (0.0058) 6 1.0065 (0.0084) farm
Calcarius lapponicus1) -11 0.955 (0.019) oth
Carduelis cannabina -62 0.9677 (0.0015) -10 1.0057 (0.0041) farm
Carduelis carduelis 9 1.0181 (0.0034) -7 1.0037 (0.003) oth
Carduelis chloris 6 1.0014 (0.0022) -11 0.9916 (0.002) oth
Carduelis flammea -76 0.9762 (0.0033) -11 0.9612 (0.0058) oth
Carduelis spinus -7 0.9903 (0.0027) -6 1.0109 (0.0037) for
Carpodacus erythrinus -30 0.9868 (0.002) -11 0.9768 (0.0064) oth
Certhia brachydactyla3) -3 1.0158 (0.0038) 21 1.0222 (0.003) for
Certhia familiaris -1 0.9975 (0.002) 3 1.0083 (0.0036) for
Cettia cetti6) 469 1.0337 (0.0089) 16 1.002 (0.0039) oth
Ciconia ciconia 73 1.0145 (0.0046) 25 1.0223 (0.0071) farm
Circus aeruginosus 263 1.0409 (0.0052) 7 1.0082 (0.0092) oth
Cisticola juncidis10) -7 1.0062 (0.0029) 132 1.0591 (0.0044) oth
Clamator glandarius10) 13 1.0263 (0.011) -34 0.9412 (0.0137) oth
Coccothraustes coccothraustes 670 1.0143 (0.0041) 31 1.0286 (0.0062) for
Columba oenas 25 1.0103 (0.0042) 17 1.0204 (0.0045) for
Columba palumbus 115 1.0191 (0.0018) 24 1.0249 (0.0015) oth
Corvus corax 84 1.018 (0.0034) -2 0.9957 (0.0051) oth
Corvus corone 9 1.0045 (0.0018) -6 0.9935 (0.0013) oth
Corvus frugilegus 181 1.03 (0.0027) -10 0.986 (0.0025) farm
Corvus monedula 31 0.9946 (0.0036) 2 1.0044 (0.0041) oth
Cuculus canorus -22 0.9891 (0.0016) -12 0.9862 (0.003) oth
Cyanopica cyanus10) 29 1.022 (0.0063) -15 1.0007 (0.0088) for
Cygnus olor 14 1.0161 (0.003) -1 0.9928 (0.0047) oth
Delichon urbica -15 0.9856 (0.0053) -8 0.9857 (0.0036) oth
Dendrocopos major 76 1.0167 (0.0016) 8 1.0104 (0.0023) oth
Dendrocopos medius6) -2 1.0121 (0.0109) 0 1.006 (0.0083) for
Dendrocopos minor -81 0.9694 (0.018) -24 0.9617 (0.0103) for
Dendrocopos syriacus1) -38 0.9025 (0.023) oth
Dryocopus martius 95 1.0124 (0.0042) -5 0.9878 (0.0038) for
Egretta garzetta1) 40 1.0187 (0.0097) oth
Emberiza cia10) -4 1.0051 (0.0055) -7 1.0066 (0.0091) oth
Emberiza cirlus6) 44 1.0244 (0.0111) 16 1.0181 (0.0051) farm
Emberiza citrinella -46 0.9856 (0.0008) -11 0.9848 (0.002) farm
Emberiza hortulana -88 0.9392 (0.0047) -14 0.9679 (0.0083) farm
Emberiza melanocephala1) -32 0.9524 (0.0141) farm
Emberiza rustica -87 0.9359 (0.0065) -46 0.9751 (0.0207) for
Emberiza schoeniclus -40 0.9898 (0.0017) -33 0.9599 (0.0059) oth
Erithacus rubecula 20 1.0092 (0.0008) 0 0.9931 (0.0019) oth
Falco tinnunculus -40 0.9892 (0.0035) -25 0.9747 (0.0027) farm
Ficedula albicollis3) 159 1.0205 (0.0047) 27 1.0284 (0.0088) for
Ficedula hypoleuca -30 0.9873 (0.0013) -1 1.0019 (0.0042) for
Fringilla coelebs 8 1.0015 (0.0005) -2 1.0014 (0.0014) oth
Fringilla montifringilla -48 0.9752 (0.0074) -24 0.975 (0.0042) oth
Fulica atra 26 1.0085 (0.0026) -19 0.9671 (0.0112) oth
Galerida cristata3) -95 0.8416 (0.036) 0 0.9921 (0.0035) farm
Galerida theklae10) 57 1.0277 (0.0061) 21 1.027 (0.0078) farm
Gallinago gallinago -56 0.9749 (0.0024) -24 0.9587 (0.0049) oth
Gallinula chloropus -21 1.0002 (0.0025) -23 0.9605 (0.0036) oth
Garrulus glandarius 12 1.0074 (0.0023) -17 0.993 (0.0026) for
Grus grus4) 392 1.0523 (0.0036) 92 1.069 (0.0055) oth
Haematopus ostralegus -12 0.9876 (0.0016) -25 0.9662 (0.0031) oth
Hippolais icterina -40 0.9842 (0.0018) 20 1.0181 (0.0072) oth
Hippolais polyglotta6) -17 0.9941 (0.0076) 28 1.0185 (0.0053) oth
Hirundo daurica10) 57 1.0099 (0.0067) 20 1.0184 (0.0099) oth
Hirundo rupestris10) 8 1.0024 (0.0079) -8 0.9859 (0.0102) oth
Hirundo rustica -34 0.9909 (0.0032) -16 0.9778 (0.0027) farm
Jynx torquilla -54 0.9789 (0.0051) 5 1.0119 (0.0097) oth
Lanius collurio -38 0.999 (0.004) -16 0.9799 (0.0067) farm
Lanius minor1) -56 0.8876 (0.0253) farm
Lanius senator10) -11 0.9823 (0.0043) -22 0.985 (0.006) farm
Larus ridibundus7) -48 0.974 (0.0035) -28 0.9781 (0.0134) oth
Limosa limosa4) -52 0.9676 (0.0021) -30 0.9687 (0.0058) farm
Locustella fluviatilis3) -64 0.9761 (0.0072) -16 0.9688 (0.0127) oth
Locustella naevia -62 0.9842 (0.0073) -17 0.9794 (0.0094) oth
Lullula arborea 5 1.0399 (0.0063) 18 1.0227 (0.0041) oth
Luscinia luscinia -13 0.9958 (0.0029) 1 0.9857 (0.0064) oth
Luscinia megarhynchos -65 0.985 (0.0029) 6 1.0092 (0.0021) oth
Luscinia svecica svecica9) -34 0.9738 (0.011) -11 0.989 (0.0116) oth
Melanocorypha calandra10) -42 0.9676 (0.0031) 2 1.0076 (0.0053) farm
Merops apiaster6) 53 0.9952 (0.0271) -33 0.9693 (0.0054) oth
Miliaria calandra -67 0.9718 (0.0032) -6 1.0045 (0.0026) farm
Motacilla alba -16 0.9961 (0.0018) -6 0.9934 (0.0036) oth
Motacilla cinerea 12 0.9988 (0.003) 3 0.9932 (0.0065) oth
Motacilla flava -55 0.9739 (0.0065) 32 1.0207 (0.0057) farm
Muscicapa striata -46 0.9853 (0.0038) 8 1.014 (0.0043) oth
Nucifraga caryocatactes 73 0.999 (0.0086) -16 0.9699 (0.0113) for
Numenius arquata -43 0.9856 (0.0039) -8 0.9941 (0.0027) oth
Numenius phaeopus4) 18 1.0086 (0.0047) 3 1.0009 (0.014) oth
Oenanthe cypriaca1) 11) -41 0.9636 (0.0157) oth
Oenanthe hispanica10) -34 0.9708 (0.0053) -34 0.9466 (0.0084) farm
Oenanthe oenanthe -69 0.9751 (0.0035) -24 0.9706 (0.0044) oth
Oriolus oriolus3) 19 1.0034 (0.004) -5 0.9988 (0.0039) oth
Parus ater -9 0.9949 (0.0019) -1 1.0061 (0.0024) for
Parus caeruleus 38 1.0126 (0.0014) 5 1.0064 (0.0021) oth
Parus cristatus -46 0.9898 (0.0032) 8 1.0027 (0.0044) for
Parus major 15 1.0046 (0.0008) 3 1.0079 (0.0017) oth
Parus montanus -69 0.9705 (0.0028) -18 0.9765 (0.0057) for
Parus palustris -28 0.9908 (0.0036) 11 1.0149 (0.0039) for
Passer domesticus -64 0.9795 (0.003) -12 0.9857 (0.0024) oth
Passer montanus -54 0.9826 (0.0036) 7 1.009 (0.0045) farm
Perdix perdix -94 0.9102 (0.0156) -40 0.9322 (0.006) farm
Petronia petronia10) 10 1.0073 (0.0053) 20 1.0199 (0.0081) farm
Phasianus colchicus 55 1.0123 (0.0017) -1 0.994 (0.0014) oth
Phoenicurus ochruros3) 61 1.0122 (0.0036) 8 1.0106 (0.0024) oth
Phoenicurus phoenicurus 30 1.0122 (0.0021) 41 1.0451 (0.0036) for
Phylloscopus bonelli6) -14 0.9929 (0.0064) 91 1.0742 (0.0056) for
Phylloscopus collybita 119 1.0181 (0.0009) 20 1.0201 (0.002) for
Phylloscopus sibilatrix -33 0.9799 (0.0019) 12 1.0066 (0.0043) for
Phylloscopus trochilus -35 0.9844 (0.0006) -10 0.9874 (0.0012) oth
Pica pica 5 0.99 (0.0026) -3 0.9978 (0.0023) oth
Picus canus3) 622 1.043 (0.0146) 21 1.0356 (0.0149) for
Picus viridis 28 1.0233 (0.0035) -12 0.9904 (0.0024) oth
Pluvialis apricaria2) -14 1.0012 (0.0033) -9 1.0054 (0.0069) oth
Podiceps cristatus7) 29 0.9931 (0.0039) 32 1.0098 (0.0088) oth
Prunella modularis -42 0.9877 (0.0011) -15 0.9872 (0.0018) oth
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax10) 56 1.0157 (0.0095) 0 1.0266 (0.0126) oth
Pyrrhula pyrrhula -46 0.9854 (0.0024) -5 1.0149 (0.0049) for
Regulus ignicapilla3) -13 0.9971 (0.0047) 50 1.0376 (0.0046) for
Regulus regulus -30 0.982 (0.0013) -7 0.9805 (0.0027) for
Saxicola rubetra -78 0.9782 (0.0049) -15 0.974 (0.0051) farm
Saxicola torquata6) 24 1.0007 (0.0095) -11 0.997 (0.0043) farm
Serinus citrinella1) -30 0.9535 (0.0161) for
Serinus serinus3) -48 0.9724 (0.0022) -13 0.9919 (0.0023) farm
Sitta europaea 127 1.0163 (0.0026) 33 1.0252 (0.0031) for
Streptopelia decaocto 90 1.0194 (0.0026) 27 1.0235 (0.0022) oth
Streptopelia turtur -79 0.9597 (0.0026) -28 0.9632 (0.0035) farm
Sturnus unicolor10) 13 1.011 (0.0027) 1 0.9994 (0.004) farm
Sturnus vulgaris -55 0.9814 (0.0027) -12 0.9832 (0.0036) farm
Sylvia atricapilla 156 1.0297 (0.001) 33 1.0324 (0.0017) oth
Sylvia borin -18 0.9928 (0.001) 2 0.9968 (0.0027) oth
Sylvia cantillans6) 97 1.0368 (0.0063) 35 1.0163 (0.0082) oth
Sylvia communis 22 1.0078 (0.0012) 22 1.018 (0.0022) farm
Sylvia curruca -20 1.0002 (0.0015) -8 0.9853 (0.0028) oth
Sylvia hortensis6) 96 1.0658 (0.0098) 31 1.0292 (0.0124) oth
Sylvia melanocephala6) 101 1.0112 (0.0106) 34 1.0197 (0.0039) oth
Sylvia melanothorax1) 11) -17 0.9916 (0.0175) oth
Sylvia nisoria3) -62 0.9639 (0.0194) 9 1.0103 (0.0201) oth
Sylvia undata10) -34 0.9657 (0.006) 0 0.9837 (0.0093) oth
Tachybaptus ruficollis7) -5 0.9995 (0.005) 4 1.0077 (0.0127) oth
Tadorna tadorna8) 24 1.0111 (0.0035) 2 1.0074 (0.0057) oth
Tetrao tetrix9) -3 1.0078 (0.0057) 14 1.0116 (0.0099) oth
Tetrax tetrax10) -70 0.9589 (0.0053) -45 0.9357 (0.0098) farm
Tringa erythropus1) 11) -35 0.9264 (0.028) oth
Tringa glareola -33 0.9945 (0.0036) -21 0.9978 (0.0074) oth
Tringa nebularia10) -16 0.9915 (0.0058) 1 0.9943 (0.0082) oth
Tringa ochropus 15 1.0086 (0.0036) 19 1.007 (0.0077) for
Tringa totanus -61 0.9768 (0.0029) -29 0.9726 (0.0056) oth
Troglodytes troglodytes 67 1.0134 (0.0009) 7 0.99 (0.0012) oth
Turdus iliacus -24 0.9934 (0.0017) -28 0.9625 (0.003) oth
Turdus merula 20 1.0093 (0.0007) 6 1.0062 (0.0013) oth
Turdus philomelos -5 1.0042 (0.0008) 7 1.0127 (0.0032) oth
Turdus pilaris 14 0.9978 (0.0014) 2 0.9931 (0.0034) oth
Turdus torquatus10) -2 0.996 (0.0087) 10 1.0157 (0.0065) oth
Turdus viscivorus -28 0.9938 (0.0024) 12 1.0194 (0.0028) for
Upupa epops3) 145 1.029 (0.0431) -4 0.9869 (0.0035) farm
Vanellus vanellus -58 0.9734 (0.003) -28 0.9642 (0.0046) farm

Species scientific and common names as well as species taxonomic order follow the BirdLife Checklist, Version 8 (BirdLife International 2015).

Explanations

Species notes:
1) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope not available.
2) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1981-2014.
3) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1982-2014.
4) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1984-2014.
5) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1988-2014.
6) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1989-2014.
7) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1990-2014.
8) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1991-2014.
9) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1996-2014.
10) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1998-2014.
11) Data for Ten-year Trend and Ten-year Slope is not available. The given Slope and Trend is only for last eight years for the period 2006-2014.

a) Long-term Trend (%) and Ten-year Trend (%) – change (in %) in an index value between the first and the last year of a time period. Long-term Trend (%) is calculated over the period 1980-2014, unless specified differently in the Species notes below the table. Ten-year Trend (%) is calculated over the period of last ten years (2005-2014).

b) Slope – multiplicative trend over a time period considered, reflects average percentage change per year. If the slope value is 1, there is no trend. If > 1, there is a positive trend, if < 1, trend is negative. For instance, 1.08 means 8 % increase per year, 0.93 means 7 % decline per year. Slope standard errors (SE) are in parenthesis. Long-term Slope is calculated over the period 1980-2014, unless specified differently in the Species notes below the table. Ten-year Slope is calculated over the period of last ten years (2005-2014).

c) Habitat
for − forest
farm − farmland
oth − other

Contact

Project coordinator: Petr Voříšek, e-mail: EuroMonitoringbirdlife.cz.

Technical assistant: Jana Škorpilová, e-mail: skorpilovabirdlife.cz.

Technical assistant (part time): Alena Klvaňová, e-mail: klvanovabirdlife.cz.

Research officer: Anna Gamero, e-mail: gamerobirdlife.cz.

All based at Czech Society for Ornithology, Na Bělidle 34, CZ-150 00 Prague 5, Czech Republic, phone +420 257 212 465.

Project manager: Richard Gregory, Head of Species Monitoring and Research, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, United Kingdom, e-mail: richard.gregoryrspb.org.uk

Reference

BirdLife International (2015) The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world: Version 8. Checklist 8 downloaded from the BirdLife website [.xls zipped 1 MB].