Trends of common birds in Europe, 2010 update

This report presents an updated population trends and indices of 137 European common bird species for the time period 1980 - 2008 that have been produced by the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS) in 2010.
Updated indicators for Europe and its regions based on data till 2008 can be found here.

First of all, we want to thank the many thousands of skilled volunteer counters who have been collecting species count data year by year in the field.

Special thanks go to the data providers & organisations as well that are responsible for national data collection and analysis, and provide us with valuable advises and various support: Norbert Teufelbauer, Christian Vansteenwegen, Anne Weiserbs, Jean-Paul Jacob, Anny Anselin, Jean-Yves Paquet, Thierry Kinet, Antoine Derouaux, Svetoslav Spasov, Iordan Hristov, Zdeněk Vermouzek, Josef Chytil, Henning Heldbjerg, Anne Eskildsen, Andres Kuresoo, Jaanus Elts, Risto A. Väisänen, Frédéric Jiguet, Johannes Schwarz, Martin Flade, Tibor Szép, Olivia Crowe, Dick Coombes, Lorenzo Fornasari, Elisabetta de Carli, Guido Tellini Florenzano, Ainārs Auniņą, Ieva Mārdega, Ruud P.B. Foppen, Chris van Turnhout, Magne Husby, Przemysław Chylarecki, Barbara Archita, Tomasz Chodkiewicz, Ricardo Martins, Ana Meirinho, Geoff Hilton, Jozef Ridzoň, Katarína Slabeyová, Juan Carlos del Moral, Virginia Escandell, Åke Lindström, Hans Schmid, David G. Noble, Kate Risely, Andrew Joys.

We are very grateful to Arco Van Strien, Adriaan Gmelig Meyling and Thomas van der Meij who contributed with final data analysis and computation procedure, and to Tomáą Telenský who helped very much with this web presentation.

We thank Richard Gregory, Ian Burfield, Lukáą Viktora, Norbert Schäffer, David W. Gibbons, Jose Tavares, Sergi Herrando, Dominique Richard and Anne Teller for valuable comments and help with data collation, analysis and for general support.

Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme is a joint initiative of the European Bird Census Council (EBCC) and BirdLife International. Since its beginning in 2002, the PECBMS project has been supported by the the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, the BirdLife International Partner in the UK). Since January 2006 the project has been funded by the European Commission as well. Sole responsibility lies with the authors and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained in this document.

Other important partners of the project are: Statistics Netherlands, Czech Society for Ornithology (CSO, BirdLife Partner in the Czech Republic), British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Dutch Organisation for Field Ornithology (SOVON), and others.

National monitoring schemes coordinators usually provide data on more than 200 species, however, data on many species are not high-quality and European index cannot be produced. In 2010, reliable European index was produced on 137 species including one new species (Dendrocopus medius). Number of countries contributing with the data remained unchanged since last year. National species indices from Spain has been provided for the two year shorter time period (1998-2008, instead of 1996 onwards) compared to the last year for the reasons of lower quality of data in first two years.
The 22 countries providing the data for 2010 update are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
The countries provided the data for different time periods (see the special report or check the ´List of countries´ at the individual species graphs).

At first, individual national species indices are produced by annually operated national breeding bird surveys from 22 European countries that cover different periods and are obtained through the PECBMS. These national species indices are computed using a software package named TRIM which allows for missing counts in the time series and yields unbiased yearly indices and standard errors using Poisson regression. The next step is the hierarchical combination of national indices into supranational ones (regional or European indices). This combination is also computed in the TRIM and in doing so, the national indices are weighted by estimates of national species population sizes (derived from Birds in Europe 2 (BirdLife International 2004)). Weighting is used because different countries hold different proportions of each species´ European population. Although national schemes differ in field methods, these differences do not influence the supranational results because the indices are standardised before being combined. More detailed information on computation methods and data quality control is summarized in special report (see).
The computation methods are also described in papers from van Strien et al. (2001) and Gregory et al. (2005).

Species habitat classification for main habitat types (farmland, forest and other) have been developed using improved procedure accepted at the PEBCMS workshop in Prague in 2005. This procedure is based on species classification within four main biogeographical regions: Atlantic, Boreal, Continental and Mediterranean. Species habitat classification has not undergone any changes since last year, details on species classification procedure can be found here.

Updated European species indices, long-/short-term trends and slopes, and species habitat classification are summarized in the table (for explanations to the table see Explanations below the table).
For showing the graph of a species index, click the species name in the table. For drawing and comparing graphs for several species at once, tick the check boxes at left side of species names and press ENTER or click Show graphs for selected species button below the table to confirm and proceed your selection. You can also draw graphs for all species at once (Select all) or quickly deselect your choice (Reset). The list of countries and time periods for they provided the data for each species can be found at individual species graphs (List of countries).

For comparison, the previous version of European species indices produced in 2009 for the time period 1980-2007 can be found here.

Despite the data quality control, quality of outputs might differ species by species. Furthermore, year to year fluctuations might not always reflect real population change. Therefore we recommend cautious interpretation of year by year changes and readers should also pay attention to species legend. For any use of the results presented in this report, we strongly recommend to consult PECBMS coordination unit (

SpeciesTrend 1980 (%)a)Long-term Slope (SE)b)Trend 1990 (%)a)Short-term Slope (SE)b)Habitat
Accipiter nisus311.0009 (0.0086)-70.98 (0.0189)for
Acrocephalus arundinaceus2)591.0258 (0.0143)331.0178 (0.0095)oth
Acrocephalus palustris231.0029 (0.0029)-81.0087 (0.0043)oth
Acrocephalus schoenobaenus-191.0007 (0.0043)31.0048 (0.0064)oth
Acrocephalus scirpaceus-70.9961 (0.0023)-140.9921 (0.0032)oth
Actitis hypoleucos-310.9838 (0.0041)-290.9833 (0.0055)oth
Aegithalos caudatus911.0066 (0.0044)161.0099 (0.0118)oth
Alauda arvensis-420.9821 (0.001)-130.9856 (0.0015)farm
Anas platyrhynchos631.0121 (0.0027)-170.9993 (0.0039)oth
Anthus campestris1) 4)-310.9894 (0.2507)farm
Anthus pratensis-600.976 (0.0041)-470.967 (0.0038)farm
Anthus trivialis-490.9732 (0.0011)-330.9814 (0.0016)for
Apus apus-30.9948 (0.0036)131.0063 (0.0087)oth
Ardea cinerea2821.0368 (0.0039)261.025 (0.0068)oth
Bonasa bonasia-210.9921 (0.0066)-120.9928 (0.0078)for
Burhinus oedicnemus1) 5)21.0202 (0.0096)farm
Buteo buteo1021.0244 (0.0035)-60.9929 (0.0053)oth
Calandrella brachydactyla1) 5)00.9924 (0.0124)farm
Carduelis cannabina-600.97 (0.0031)-470.9516 (0.0062)farm
Carduelis carduelis-151.0157 (0.0034)-70.9963 (0.0068)oth
Carduelis chloris311.0051 (0.003)-110.9969 (0.0042)oth
Carduelis flammea-780.9751 (0.0065)-410.9911 (0.0071)oth
Carduelis spinus-140.9896 (0.0033)-260.979 (0.0034)for
Carpodacus erythrinus-100.9976 (0.0025)-360.9706 (0.003)oth
Certhia brachydactyla2)-171.0159 (0.0045)461.0288 (0.0106)for
Certhia familiaris61.0001 (0.0024)90.9968 (0.0028)for
Cettia cetti1)5381.0511 (0.0125)oth
Ciconia ciconia2)1921.037 (0.0131)291.0208 (0.0099)farm
Circus aeruginosus2931.0435 (0.007)-180.9947 (0.0057)oth
Cisticola juncidis1) 5)-161.0028 (0.0057)oth
Coccothraustes coccothraustes6271.0126 (0.0055)-290.9797 (0.0044)for
Columba oenas141.0075 (0.0039)141.0093 (0.0092)for
Columba palumbus1001.0203 (0.0021)291.0144 (0.0016)oth
Corvus corax1141.0228 (0.0041)711.0191 (0.0034)oth
Corvus corone&cornix231.0055 (0.002)111.0053 (0.0024)oth
Corvus frugilegus391.0124 (0.0037)251.0075 (0.0048)farm
Corvus monedula120.9886 (0.0048)-150.9825 (0.0065)oth
Cuculus canorus-130.9904 (0.0015)-60.9971 (0.0034)oth
Cyanopica cyanus1) 5)781.0498 (0.0109)oth
Delichon urbicum-160.9864 (0.0053)-170.9852 (0.0096)oth
Dendrocopos major681.0167 (0.0017)271.0209 (0.0045)oth
Dendrocopos medius1)931.0273 (0.0104)for
Dendrocopos minor-710.9618 (0.0216)-510.952 (0.0443)for
Dendrocopos syriacus1) 6)-190.9797 (0.0555)oth
Dryocopus martius1721.0182 (0.0048)771.021 (0.0139)for
Emberiza cia1) 5)40.997 (0.009)oth
Emberiza cirlus1)711.04 (0.0157)farm
Emberiza citrinella-390.9844 (0.001)-190.9898 (0.0017)farm
Emberiza hortulana-820.9372 (0.0061)-380.9943 (0.0152)farm
Emberiza melanocephala1) 7)30.982 (0.0506)farm
Emberiza rustica-710.9463 (0.0091)-620.9204 (0.0119)for
Emberiza schoeniclus-130.9944 (0.002)10.9937 (0.0037)oth
Erithacus rubecula311.0121 (0.0008)181.0101 (0.0016)oth
Falco tinnunculus-160.9936 (0.0035)-250.9737 (0.0071)farm
Ficedula albicollis2)1731.027 (0.0062)691.0012 (0.0051)for
Ficedula hypoleuca-180.99 (0.0014)-200.9881 (0.0019)for
Fringilla coelebs61.0001 (0.001)-50.9981 (0.0012)oth
Fringilla montifringilla-740.9657 (0.0079)-380.9744 (0.0045)oth
Galerida cristata2)-950.805 (0.0481)00.8718 (0.052)farm
Galerida theklae1) 5)331.0316 (0.0113)farm
Gallinago gallinago-290.9788 (0.0031)00.9993 (0.0038)oth
Garrulus glandarius301.0083 (0.0024)371.0195 (0.0071)for
Hippolais icterina-440.9847 (0.0021)-150.99 (0.0028)oth
Hippolais polyglotta1)-180.9869 (0.0099)oth
Hirundo rupestris1) 5)171.015 (0.014)oth
Hirundo rustica-170.9963 (0.0023)-210.9888 (0.0041)farm
Jynx torquilla-570.9667 (0.0068)-390.9844 (0.0095)oth
Lanius collurio-291.0046 (0.0056)451.0111 (0.0103)farm
Lanius minor1) 6)41.0076 (0.0441)farm
Lanius senator1) 5)-180.9835 (0.0072)farm
Limosa limosa3)-560.9661 (0.0036)-510.9668 (0.0019)farm
Locustella fluviatilis2)-670.9862 (0.0068)-530.982 (0.0097)oth
Locustella naevia-361.0008 (0.0058)81.0014 (0.0064)oth
Lullula arborea321.0207 (0.018)401.0012 (0.0126)oth
Luscinia luscinia311.0119 (0.003)421.0157 (0.0055)oth
Luscinia megarhynchos-610.983 (0.0035)01.0038 (0.0042)oth
Melanocorypha calandra1) 5)-340.9545 (0.0066)farm
Merops apiaster1)-201.0048 (0.0369)oth
Miliaria calandra-780.9555 (0.0099)-190.9876 (0.0078)farm
Motacilla alba-160.9942 (0.0015)-290.9887 (0.003)oth
Motacilla cinerea2)-330.9927 (0.0053)-170.9973 (0.0046)oth
Motacilla flava-720.9545 (0.016)-280.965 (0.0161)farm
Muscicapa striata-480.9807 (0.005)-260.9868 (0.0112)oth
Nucifraga caryocatactes360.9981 (0.0119)-580.9621 (0.0175)for
Oenanthe hispanica1) 5)-70.9803 (0.0108)farm
Oenanthe oenanthe-540.9627 (0.0083)-600.9555 (0.0037)oth
Oriolus oriolus2)291.0061 (0.0039)431.0166 (0.0078)oth
Parus ater-20.9952 (0.0022)-130.986 (0.0057)for
Parus caeruleus381.0119 (0.0013)301.0173 (0.0033)oth
Parus cristatus-290.99 (0.0034)-130.9922 (0.0033)for
Parus major161.0023 (0.0008)171.009 (0.0018)oth
Parus montanus-590.9678 (0.0031)-400.9824 (0.0073)for
Parus palustris-300.9845 (0.0037)-91.0017 (0.01)for
Passer domesticus-620.971 (0.0032)-170.9908 (0.0028)oth
Passer montanus-550.9805 (0.0043)70.9872 (0.01)farm
Perdix perdix-810.937 (0.0098)-640.934 (0.0163)farm
Petronia petronia1) 5)131.0253 (0.0137)farm
Phoenicurus ochruros2)381.0088 (0.0043)-31.0014 (0.0065)oth
Phoenicurus phoenicurus-21.0056 (0.0025)341.0136 (0.0054)for
Phylloscopus bonelli1)-330.9791 (0.0244)for
Phylloscopus collybita781.0219 (0.0011)-110.9955 (0.0017)for
Phylloscopus sibilatrix-300.9771 (0.0023)-260.971 (0.0036)for
Phylloscopus trochilus-340.9841 (0.0008)-330.9825 (0.0014)oth
Pica pica50.9928 (0.0021)-300.9712 (0.0047)oth
Picus canus2)1741.0152 (0.0193)-200.9836 (0.0104)for
Picus viridis661.0284 (0.0062)661.0325 (0.011)oth
Prunella modularis-370.9843 (0.0025)-180.9913 (0.0024)oth
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax1) 5)291.0139 (0.0165)oth
Pyrrhula pyrrhula-540.9825 (0.0027)-350.9735 (0.005)for
Regulus ignicapilla2)-121.0066 (0.0076)-280.9992 (0.0172)for
Regulus regulus-190.9872 (0.0016)-390.9785 (0.0024)for
Saxicola rubetra-550.9845 (0.0053)01.0027 (0.0036)farm
Saxicola torquatus1)21.012 (0.0126)farm
Serinus serinus2)-430.9686 (0.0053)-370.972 (0.0116)farm
Sitta europaea751.0138 (0.0031)-70.9995 (0.0087)for
Streptopelia decaocto731.017 (0.0028)941.042 (0.0034)oth
Streptopelia turtur-690.9622 (0.0027)-260.9891 (0.0052)farm
Sturnus unicolor1) 5)121.0155 (0.0045)farm
Sturnus vulgaris-560.9763 (0.0044)-80.9931 (0.0033)farm
Sylvia atricapilla1021.0297 (0.001)351.0236 (0.002)oth
Sylvia borin-170.9946 (0.0011)-140.9966 (0.0025)oth
Sylvia cantillans1)101.0262 (0.0094)oth
Sylvia communis361.0123 (0.0013)151.0083 (0.002)farm
Sylvia curruca-131.0036 (0.0017)141.0065 (0.0023)oth
Sylvia hortensis1)2161.1025 (0.0163)oth
Sylvia melanocephala1)-51.0125 (0.0144)oth
Sylvia nisoria2)791.0124 (0.045)-350.9756 (0.0153)oth
Sylvia undata1) 5)-320.9445 (0.0103)oth
Tringa totanus-440.9786 (0.0041)-370.9728 (0.0044)oth
Troglodytes troglodytes601.0176 (0.0022)111.0139 (0.0014)oth
Turdus iliacus70.998 (0.0021)131.004 (0.0023)oth
Turdus merula181.0091 (0.0009)151.0102 (0.001)oth
Turdus philomelos-21.0024 (0.0008)241.0142 (0.0012)oth
Turdus pilaris51.0044 (0.0019)-360.9868 (0.002)oth
Turdus viscivorus-230.9909 (0.0031)-50.9943 (0.0051)for
Upupa epops2)1821.0427 (0.0557)-131.0061 (0.0246)farm
Vanellus vanellus-480.9691 (0.0033)-320.9829 (0.0055)farm

Species scientific and common names follow the BirdLife Checklist, Version 3 (BirdLife International 2010).


Species notes:
1) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope not available.
2) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1982-2008.
3) Data for Long-term Trend and Long-term Slope available over the period 1984-2008.
4) Data for Short-term Trend and Short-term Slope available over the period 1991-2008.
5) Data for Short-term Trend and Short-term Slope available over the period 1998-2008.
6) Data for Short-term Trend and Short-term Slope available over the period 1999-2008.
7) Data for Short-term Trend and Short-term Slope available over the period 2005-2008.

a) Trend1980(%) and Trend1990(%) - change (in %) in an index value between the first and the last year of a time period. Trend1980(%), i.e. long-term Trend, is computed over the period 1980-2008, Trend1990(%), i.e. short-term Trend, is computed over the period 1990-2008, if not noted otherwise in the Species notes.

b) Slope - multiplicative trend over a time period considered, reflects average percentage change per year. If the slope value is 1, there is no trend. If > 1, there is a positive trend, if < 1, trend is negative. For instance, 1.08 means 8 % increase per year, 0.93 means 7 % decline per year. Slope standard errors (SE) are in parenthesis. Long-term Slope is computed over the period 1980-2008, Short-term Slope is computed over the period 1990-2008, if not noted otherwise in the Species notes.

c) Habitat
for - forest
farm - farmland
oth - other

Petr Voříąek, PECBMS project coordinator
Czech Society for Ornithology, Na Bělidle 34, CZ-150 00 Prague 5, Czech Republic, phone +420 257212465, e-mail:

  • Van Strien, A.J. Pannekoek, J. & Gibbons, D.W. 2001. Bird Study 48: 200-213.
  • BirdLife International 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • BirdLife International 2010. The BirdLife checklist of the birds of the world, with conservation status and taxonomic sources. Version 3. (
  • Gregory, R.D., van Strien, A.J., Vorisek, P., Gmelig Meyling, A.W., Noble, D.G., Foppen, R.P.B. & Gibbons, D.W. 2005. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 360: 269-288.

Jana ©korpilová, Petr Voříąek and Alena Klvaňová


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