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Trends of common birds in Europe, 2007 update

This report presents an enlarged set of population trends and indices of 124 common bird species in Europe, which have been produced by Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme in early 2007. The trends and indices presented in this report cover time period 1980 - 2005, although data back to 60s are available from some European countries.


Acknowledgements

Special thanks to the data providers & organisations responsible for national data collection and analysis: Norbert Teufelbauer, Michael Dvorak, Christian Vansteenwegen, Anne Weiserbs, Jean-Paul Jacob, Anny Anselin, Thierry Kinet, Anotoine Derouaux, Jiri Reif, Karel Stastny, Henning Heldbjerg, Michael Grell, Andres Kuresoo, Risto A. Väisänen, Fréderic Jiguet, Johannes Schwarz, Martin Flade, Tibor Szep, Olivia Crowe, Dick Coombes, Lorenzo Fornasari, Elisabetta de Carli, Ainars Aunins, Ruud P. B. Foppen, Magne Husby, Przemek Chylarecki, Dagmara Jawinska, Geoff Hilton, Juan Carlos del Moral, Ramón Martí, Virginia Escandell, Åke Lindström, Sören Svensson, Hans Schmid, David G. Noble, Mike Raven, Andrew Joys.

We thank to Richard Gregory, Arco Van Strien, Adriaan Gmelig Meyling, Ian Burfield, Grégoire Lois, Ruud Foppen, David Noble and Zoltan Waliczky , Lukas Viktora, Lucie Hoskova, Norbert Schaffer, David W. Gibbons, Ian Burfield, Nicola Crockford, Jose Tavares, Henk Sierdsema, Sergi Herrando, Dominique Richard and Anne Teller for valuable comments and help with data collation, analysis and for general support.

Thanks to the many thousands of skilled volunteer counters responsible for data collection.

The project has been supported by the Royal Society for Protection of Birds (RSPB), the BirdLife International Partner in the UK. Since January 2006 the project has been supported by the European Community. Sole responsibility lies with the author and the European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained in this document.

Other significant partners of the project are: Statistics Netherlands, Czech Society for Ornithology (CSO), BirdLife International Partner in the Czech Republic, British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Dutch Organisation for Field Ornithology (SOVON) and EBCC and BirdLife European Partnership.


Methods

Trend information was derived from annually operated national breeding bird surveys spanning different periods from 20 European countries, obtained through the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS). A software package named TRIM (which allows for missing counts in the time series and yields unbiased yearly indices and standard errors using Poisson regression) was used to calculate national species´ indices and then to combine these into supranational indices for species, weighted by estimates of national population sizes. Weighting allows for the fact that different countries hold different proportions of each species´ European population. Updated population size estimates were used for weighting, derived from BirdLife International (2004). Although national schemes differ in count methods in the field, these differences do not influence the supranational results because the indices are standardised before being combined. An improved hierarchical imputation procedure was used to calculate supranational indices.

Species characteristic for main habitat types have been classified using improved procedure accepted at the PEBCMS workshop in Prague in 2005. This procedure is based on species classification within four main biogeographical regions, Atlantic, Boreal, Continental and Mediterranean.


Data

National monitoring coordinators provided data on 224 species, however, data on many species were poor that European index could not be produced. Finally, reliable European index was produced on 124 species. The data come from 20 countries including data from new scheme in Portugal. The countries are: Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy. Data from Estonia are old data from the first PECBMS attempt to produce European indices and cover limited number of species and time period (until 2000). Details of computation methods and species classification will be published at this web site too.

Results are summarised in the table, for graph of species´ index, click on species name.
Species Trend 1980
(%)a)
Trend 1990
(%)a)
long-term slope (SE)b) short-term slope (SE)b) habitatc)
Accipiter nisus 15 -13 1.0043 (0.0091) 0.9792 (0.0217) for
Acrocephalus arundinaceus2) 62 -29 1.0314 (0.0169) 1.0026 (0.0137) oth
Acrocephalus palustris 0 -31 0.9993 (0.0034) 1.0014 (0.0042) oth
Acrocephalus schoenobaenus -65 -44 0.9815 (0.0086) 0.9724 (0.0181) oth
Acrocephalus scirpaceus -11 -22 0.9928 (0.0026) 0.988 (0.0038) oth
Actitis hypoleucos -19 -14 0.9795 (0.0047) 0.9851 (0.0076) oth
Aegithalos caudatus 46 -16 1.0067 (0.0044) 1.002 (0.0127) oth
Alauda arvensis -47 -26 0.9813 (0.001) 0.983 (0.0016) farm
Anthus campestris1) -60 0.9247 (0.0082) farm
Anthus pratensis -57 -32 0.9799 (0.0041) 0.9731 (0.0034) farm
Anthus trivialis -49 -30 0.97 (0.0012) 0.9792 (0.0019) for
Apus apus 7 21 0.9921 (0.0039) 1.0053 (0.0099) oth
Bonasa bonasia3) -47 -50 0.9883 (0.0071) 0.9899 (0.011) for
Buteo buteo 80 -9 1.0265 (0.0033) 0.9981 (0.0055) oth
Calandrella brachydactyla1) -24 0.9716 (0.0148) farm
Carduelis cannabina -54 -40 0.9783 (0.0031) 0.9585 (0.0063) farm
Carduelis carduelis -9 3 1.0175 (0.0033) 1.0086 (0.007) oth
Carduelis chloris 29 -11 1.0029 (0.0019) 0.997 (0.0043) oth
Carduelis flammea -54 9 0.9885 (0.0363) 0.9886 (0.0087) oth
Carduelis spinus -34 -6 0.9896 (0.0036) 0.9971 (0.0032) for
Carpodacus erythrinus 224 -45 1.0172 (0.0055) 0.96 (0.0038) oth
Certhia brachydactyla2) -46 35 0.9941 (0.0074) 1.0281 (0.0105) for
Certhia familiaris -2 8 0.9996 (0.0027) 0.9978 (0.0037) for
Cettia cetti1) 541 1.0728 (0.0147) oth
Ciconia ciconia2) 119 70 1.0268 (0.0139) 1.0311 (0.013) farm
Cisticola juncidis1) -5 0.9938 (0.0116) oth
Coccothraustes coccothraustes 658 -33 1.0209 (0.0072) 0.9769 (0.0054) for
Columba oenas 13 10 1.008 (0.0045) 1.0118 (0.0111) for
Columba palumbus 71 19 1.0195 (0.0023) 1.0109 (0.0017) oth
Corvus corax 118 54 1.0473 (0.005) 1.022 (0.0047) oth
Corvus corone 21 6 1.0065 (0.0021) 1.0042 (0.0027) oth
Corvus frugilegus 37 18 1.0149 (0.0043) 1.0122 (0.0052) farm
Corvus monedula 14 -10 0.9935 (0.0039) 0.9877 (0.0063) oth
Cuculus canorus -17 -6 0.9867 (0.0016) 0.9888 (0.0037) oth
Delichon urbica -8 -19 0.9803 (0.0058) 0.9749 (0.0117) oth
Dendrocopos major 43 25 1.0113 (0.0017) 1.0203 (0.005) oth
Dendrocopos minor -81 -56 0.9272 (0.024) 0.9393 (0.051) for
Dryocopus martius 77 52 1.0217 (0.0053) 1.0191 (0.0152) for
Emberiza cia1) 114 1.0497 (0.0136) oth
Emberiza cirlus1) 57 1.039 (0.0165) farm
Emberiza citrinella -40 -20 0.9794 (0.001) 0.9864 (0.0017) farm
Emberiza hortulana -18 16 0.9863 (0.0089) 1.0566 (0.0241) farm
Emberiza schoeniclus -7 21 0.9964 (0.003) 0.994 (0.0044) oth
Erithacus rubecula 16 11 1.0119 (0.0008) 1.0124 (0.0018) oth
Falco tinnunculus -23 -27 0.9923 (0.0038) 0.9712 (0.0079) farm
Ficedula albicollis2) 182 56 1.0358 (0.0073) 0.9983 (0.007) for
Ficedula hypoleuca -26 -24 0.9884 (0.0016) 0.9856 (0.0021) for
Fringilla coelebs 11 -1 1 (0.0006) 0.9993 (0.001) oth
Fringilla montifringilla -70 -7 0.9668 (0.0084) 0.9796 (0.0038) oth
Galerida cristata2) -95 -85 0.8634 (0.0443) 0.8894 (0.0095) farm
Galerida theklae1) 99 1.0665 (0.0178) farm
Gallinago gallinago -36 -12 0.977 (0.0031) 0.9965 (0.0039) oth
Garrulus glandarius 32 51 1.0007 (0.0028) 1.0186 (0.0075) for
Hippolais icterina -42 -21 0.9808 (0.0025) 0.9875 (0.0036) oth
Hippolais polyglotta1) -12 0.9826 (0.0096) oth
Hirundo rupestris1) 118 1.0424 (0.024) oth
Hirundo rustica -16 -17 0.9942 (0.0024) 0.9793 (0.0043) farm
Jynx torquilla -74 -38 0.9526 (0.007) 0.9581 (0.0085) oth
Lanius collurio -30 26 1.0006 (0.006) 1.012 (0.0106) farm
Lanius senator1) -41 0.9605 (0.0087) farm
Limosa limosa1) -39 0.9723 (0.0021) farm
Locustella fluviatilis2) -62 -37 0.9887 (0.0072) 0.9954 (0.0095) oth
Locustella naevia -44 -8 0.9874 (0.0066) 0.9779 (0.0077) oth
Lullula arborea -18 24 1.0438 (0.0329) 1.0069 (0.013) oth
Luscinia luscinia -29 -37 0.9783 (0.0031) 0.9774 (0.0086) oth
Luscinia megarhynchos -63 0 0.9627 (0.0054) 1.0028 (0.0045) oth
Melanocorypha calandra1) -9 0.9792 (0.0075) farm
Merops apiaster1) 30 1.0239 (0.0354) oth
Miliaria calandra -61 -10 0.9654 (0.006) 0.9867 (0.0097) farm
Motacilla alba -14 -28 0.9962 (0.0016) 0.9897 (0.0034) oth
Motacilla cinerea2) -54 -39 0.9757 (0.0054) 0.9759 (0.0056) oth
Motacilla flava -31 -22 0.9868 (0.0054) 0.9946 (0.007) farm
Muscicapa striata -59 -32 0.969 (0.0051) 0.9828 (0.0126) oth
Nucifraga caryocatactes 19 -62 0.9702 (0.0143) 0.9215 (0.0181) for
Oenanthe hispanica1) -2 0.9861 (0.0121) farm
Oenanthe oenanthe -70 -52 0.9471 (0.0129) 0.9523 (0.0063) oth
Oriolus oriolus2) 34 29 1.0173 (0.0049) 1.0065 (0.0077) oth
Parus ater -17 -17 0.9981 (0.0029) 0.9824 (0.0036) for
Parus caeruleus 43 33 1.0093 (0.0013) 1.0148 (0.0039) oth
Parus cristatus -35 -11 0.9815 (0.0061) 0.9937 (0.0108) for
Parus major 12 18 0.9991 (0.0009) 1.0075 (0.002) oth
Parus montanus -58 -33 0.9623 (0.0036) 0.9836 (0.0093) for
Parus palustris -35 -18 0.9747 (0.0043) 0.9902 (0.0115) for
Passer domesticus -37 -2 0.9819 (0.0023) 0.9949 (0.0035) oth
Passer montanus -45 13 0.9808 (0.004) 0.9904 (0.0092) farm
Perdix perdix -79 -58 0.9265 (0.0119) 0.9097 (0.0235) farm
Petronia petronia1) 48 1.0234 (0.011) farm
Phoenicurus ochruros2) 24 -6 1.0044 (0.0043) 1.0012 (0.0074) oth
Phoenicurus phoenicurus -33 31 0.9979 (0.0025) 1.0132 (0.0062) for
Phylloscopus bonelli1) -33 0.9721 (0.0234) for
Phylloscopus collybita 56 -22 1.0286 (0.0013) 1.0001 (0.0021) for
Phylloscopus sibilatrix -44 -52 0.9726 (0.003) 0.9446 (0.0052) for
Phylloscopus trochilus -30 -26 0.9825 (0.0008) 0.9807 (0.0016) oth
Pica pica 5 -29 0.9955 (0.002) 0.9659 (0.0051) oth
Picus canus2) 63 -11 1.0136 (0.0242) 0.9822 (0.0138) for
Picus viridis 43 45 1.0214 (0.0037) 1.028 (0.0119) oth
Prunella modularis -33 -10 0.986 (0.0012) 0.9928 (0.0028) oth
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax1) 32 1.007 (0.0209) oth
Pyrrhula pyrrhula -48 -16 0.9862 (0.0025) 0.9846 (0.0056) for
Regulus ignicapilla2) -19 -33 1.0057 (0.0092) 1.0086 (0.0173) for
Regulus regulus -19 -38 0.9947 (0.0016) 0.9834 (0.0026) for
Saxicola rubetra -55 -10 0.9826 (0.0062) 1.001 (0.0044) farm
Saxicola torquata2) -30 1 0.9943 (0.0592) 1.0203 (0.0132) farm
Serinus serinus2) -41 -31 0.9651 (0.0049) 0.9754 (0.0117) farm
Sitta europaea 61 -14 1.0114 (0.0034) 0.9901 (0.0101) for
Streptopelia decaocto 59 104 1.0207 (0.0033) 1.0477 (0.0043) oth
Streptopelia turtur -62 -19 0.9633 (0.0034) 0.9889 (0.0055) farm
Sturnus unicolor1) 55 1.0377 (0.0069) farm
Sturnus vulgaris -49 -3 0.9753 (0.0037) 0.9961 (0.0035) farm
Sylvia atricapilla 82 22 1.0261 (0.001) 1.0199 (0.0021) oth
Sylvia borin -21 -20 0.992 (0.0011) 0.993 (0.0025) oth
Sylvia cantillans1) -2 1.0096 (0.0239) oth
Sylvia communis 9 -4 1.0104 (0.0015) 1.0081 (0.0023) farm
Sylvia curruca -10 12 0.9999 (0.002) 1.0058 (0.003) oth
Sylvia melanocephala1) -16 1.0194 (0.0148) oth
Sylvia undata1) -27 0.9668 (0.0119) oth
Troglodytes troglodytes 45 3 1.0179 (0.0009) 1.0163 (0.0016) oth
Turdus iliacus 21 14 0.9996 (0.0024) 1.0046 (0.0023) oth
Turdus merula 15 16 1.007 (0.0007) 1.0125 (0.0011) oth
Turdus philomelos -5 22 0.9973 (0.0009) 1.0146 (0.0014) oth
Turdus pilaris 7 -37 1.0083 (0.0019) 0.9916 (0.0019) oth
Turdus viscivorus -20 -3 0.9885 (0.0029) 0.9977 (0.0056) for
Upupa epops2) 49 -24 1.0118 (0.0443) 0.9882 (0.0247) farm
Vanellus vanellus -51 -40 0.9597 (0.0038) 0.9682 (0.0071) farm


1) Data for long-term trend and log-term slope not available.
2) Data for long-term trend and log-term slope available over the period 1982-2005.
3) Data for long-term trend and log-term slope available over the period 1983-2005.
a) Trend - change (in %) in an index value between the first and last year of a time period (Long-term trend - over the period 1980-2005, Short-term trend - over the period 1990-2005).
b) Slope - multiplicative trend over a time period considered, reflects average percentage change per year. If the slope value is 1, there is no trend. If > 1, there is a positive trend, if < 1, trend is negative. For instance, 1.08 means 8 % increase per year, 0.93 means 7 % decline per year. Slope standard error in parenthesis (Long-term slope - over the period 1980-2005, Short-term slope - over the period 1990-2005).
c) Habitat
for - forest
farm - farmland
oth - other

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