European wild bird indicators, 2017 update

The Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS) presents a set of updated European wild bird indicators for the time period 1980-2015. The indicators are computed for Europe and its regions (West, North, Central & East and South Europe), and EU, New and Old EU states for common farmland, common forest, and all common birds. Both single European and BioGeo regional species habitat classification are used to assess if each bird species belongs to farmland, forest or other indicator.


The indices of European common birds were used for computation of European indicators. For computation of regional indicators for West, North, Central & East, and South Europe or for EU, New and Old EU states, the regional and EU individual species indices were used, respectively. Although we produce European, EU and regional indices for 170 species, two species (Oenanthe cypriaca and Sylvia melanothorax) haven´t been included in the common bird indicators for Europe, EU and regions since they are endemic species of Cyprus and so not common for the whole of Europe. Consequently only 168 species are included in the common bird indicators. The number of species included in the common farmland bird indicators (39 farmland species) and common forest bird indicators (34 forest species) for Europe and EU remained the same as last year.


The computation procedure of the individual species indices is described in the Methods section, chapter 1. National species indices and trends (computation of national species indices) and chapter 2. Supranational species indices and trends (computation of supranational - European and regional - species indices).

Indicators (multi-species indices) are computed using MSI-tool (R-script) for calculating of Multi-Species Indicators (MSI) and trends in MSIs. The method of the calculation is described in Soldaat et al. (2017). Either European, EU or regional species indices including their standard errors are used as a source data. The smoothed indicators are presented in graphs at the website, and smoothed indicators including their lower and upper confidence limits for the time periods from 1980-onwards and 1990-onwards are available for download at the website (see below). Detailed description of production of the indicators is described in the Methods section, chapter 3. Multispecies indicators.

Species habitat classification
Species habitat classification for main habitat types (farmland, forest and other) has been developed using improved procedure accepted at the PEBCMS workshop in Prague in 2005. We used two version of species habitat classification - single European and BioGeo regional species habitat classification. Detailed information including the list of species with their habitat classification is provided in the Methods section, chapter 3, Box Species selection and classification.


In the tables below, you can find the set of main European, EU and regional smoothed indicators produced in 2017.
For the complete information on an indicator (graph, list of species and list of countries), click the indicator name in the column Indicator.
For the list of species only, click the number in the column No. of species.
For the list of countries only, click the name of region in the column Region.
For drawing and comparing graphs for several indicators at once, tick the check boxes at left side of indicator names and press ENTER or click the button Show graphs for selected indicators below the table to confirm and proceed your selection. You can also draw graphs for all indicators at once (Select all) or quickly deselect your choice (Reset).

At each presentation of indicator´s graph, click the List of species and their trends for showing the list of species and their trends since the year indicated in the column Base year. For the list of countries, click the List of countries.
Below the indicator graph, the numbers of species in each indicator which are declining (moderately or steeply declining), increasing (moderately or strongly increasing), stable and uncertain are presented.

For comparison, check the previous version of indicators produced for the time period 1980-2014.

Download the latest indicators

Set of main indicators for Europe and EU is now freely available for download in Excel sheet (Data Provision and Co-Authorship Policies applies).When using the data we would be grateful if you could please acknowledge the data source as: 'EBCC/BirdLife/RSPB/CSO'.

We appreciate you help us to keep evidence of usage of our results. For this purpose, please fill in the simple registration form after you download the data files.

Download the latest European and EU indicators till 2015.

Please, note that the data is licensed under a Creative Commons license CC BY-NC 4.0 and is governed by applicable copyright law (Creative Commons Legal Code). Creative Commons. January 9, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2010.

Note: We recommend cautious interpretation of year by year changes in the indicators values and readers should also pay attention to lists of species and countries. For any use of the results presented in this report, we strongly recommend to consult PECBMS coordination unit (

If you cannot display the graphs correctly, visit this page

Common bird indicators, Europe, single European species habitat classification

IndicatorRegionTime periodNo. of
All common birdsEurope1980-2015168-14
Common farmland birdsEurope1980-201539-55
Common forest birdsEurope1980-201534-5

Common bird indicators, EU, single European species habitat classification

IndicatorRegionTime periodNo. of
All common birdsEU1980-2015168-14
Common farmland birdsEU1980-201539-56
Common forest birdsEU1980-201534-3
Common farmland birdsNew EU1982-201527-46
Common farmland birdsOld EU1980-201539-54

Regional common bird indicators, single European species habitat classification

IndicatorRegionTime periodNo. of
Common farmland birdsCentral & East Europe1982-201523-41
Common forest birdsCentral & East Europe1982-201527-6
Common farmland birdsNorth Europe1980-201514-48
Common forest birdsNorth Europe1980-201526-19
Common farmland birdsSouth Europe1989-201537-33
Common forest birdsSouth Europe1989-201525-25
Common farmland birdsWest Europe1980-201522-54
Common forest birdsWest Europe1980-2015292

Regional common bird indicators, BioGeo regional species habitat classification

IndicatorRegionTime periodNo. of
Common farmland birdsCentral & East Europe1982-201523-40
Common forest birdsCentral & East Europe1982-2015343
Common farmland birdsNorth Europe1980-201514-43
Common forest birdsNorth Europe1980-201518-11
Common farmland birdsSouth Europe1989-201548-18
Common forest birdsSouth Europe1989-201532-12
Common farmland birdsWest Europe1980-201525-41
Common forest birdsWest Europe1980-2015322


a) Trend (%) - change (in %) in an index value between the first and last year of a time period


The success of the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme owes much to the co-operation, goodwill and expertise of the PECBMS network.

First of all, we thank very much all volunteer counters that count birds in the field in their countries year by year.

Special thanks go to the data providers & organisations as well that are responsible for national data collection and analysis, and provide us with valuable advises and various support (listed alphabetically by countries):
Benjamin Seaman, Norbert Teufelbauer (Austria), Antoine Derouaux, Alain Paquet, Jean-Yves Paquet, Anne Weiserbs (Belgium), Iordan Hristov, Georgi Popgeorgiev (Bulgaria), Martin Hellicar, Derek Pomeroy (Cyprus), Zdeněk Vermouzek (Czech Republic), Malou Fenger, Michael Fink Jørgensen, Timme Nyegaard, (Denmark), Renno Nellis, Hannes Pehlak (Estonia), Juha Honkala, Aleksi Lehikoinen, Päivi Sirkiä, Risto A. Väisänen (Finland), Diane Gonzalez, Frédéric Jiguet (France), Malte Busch, Martin Flade, Christoph Grüneberg, Johannes Schwarz, Sven Trautmann (Germany), Theodoros Kominos, Aris Manolopoulos, Danae Portolou (Greece), Zoltán Görögh, Károly Nagy, Zsolt Nagy, Tibor Szép (Hungary), Simonetta Cutini, Elisabetta de Carli & Laura Silva (Italy), Ainārs Auniņš, Oskars Keišs, Ieva Mārdega (Latvia), Petras Kurlavičius, Renata Mackevičienė (Lithuania), Gilles Biver (Luxembourg), Arjan Boele, Joost van Bruggen, Kees Koffijberg, Tom van der Meij, Wolf Teunissen, Chris van Turnhout, Jan-Willem Vergeer (Netherlands), Magne Husby, John Atle Kålås, Roald Vang (Norway), Tomasz Chodkiewicz, Przemysław Chylarecki, Grzegorz Neubauer (Poland) , Julieta Costa, Isabel Fagundes, Ana Leal, Domingos Leitão, Ricardo Martins, Ana Teresa Marques, Ana Meirinho, António Rosa, Hugo Sampaio (Portugal), Dick Coombes, Olivia Crowe, David Tierney (Republic of Ireland), Cristian Domşa, Ede Gábos, Zoltán D. Szabó, Judit Veres-Szászka (Romania), Jozef Ridzoň, Katarína Slabeyová, Ján Topercer (Slovakia), Jernej Figelj, Primož Kmecl (Slovenia), Marc Anton, Virginia Escandell, Emilio Escudero, Sergi Herrando, Juan Carlos del Moral (Spain), Martin Green, Åke Lindström (Sweden), Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid, Martin Spiess (Switzerland), Sarah Harris, Dario Massimino, David Noble (United Kingdom).

We are very grateful to Arco Van Strien, Adriaan Gmelig Meyling and Thomas van der Meij (all from Statistics Netherlands) who developed a tool for calculation of indices and trends and provided an assistance with a computation procedure, and to Tomáš Telenský who helped very much with this web presentation.

We thank members of the PECBMS Steering and Technical Group - Richard D. Gregory (RSPB), Ruud P. B. Foppen (SOVON), David G. Noble (BTO), Iván Ramírez (Birdlife International), and Zdeněk Vermouzek (CSO) - for valuable comments and help with data collation and analysis.

Other information

The PECBMS project is a joint initiative of the European Bird Census Council (EBCC) and BirdLife International.

Since its beginning in 2002, the PECBMS project has been supported by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, the BirdLife International Partner in the UK). Since January 2006 the project has been funded by the European Commission as well.


Other significant partners of the project are: Statistics Netherlands, Czech Society for Ornithology (CSO, BirdLife International Partner in the Czech Republic), British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Dutch Organisation for Field Ornithology (SOVON), and others.


Project manager: Petr Voříšek, e-mail:

Project coordinator: Maaike de Jong, e-mail:

Technical assistant (part time): Alena Klvaňová, e-mail:

Research officer: Anna Gamero, e-mail:

All based at Czech Society for Ornithology, Na Bělidle 34, CZ-150 00 Prague 5, Czech Republic, phone +420 257 212 465.

Project executive: Richard Gregory, Head of Species Monitoring and Research, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL, United Kingdom, e-mail:

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